Myeloid cells contribute indirectly to VEGF expression upon hypoxia via activation of Müller cells

Nürnberg C, Kociok N, Brockmann C, Lischke T, Crespo-Garcia S, Reichhart N, Wolf S, Baumgrass R, Eming SA, Beer-Hammer S, Joussen AM

Exp. Eye Res. 2018 01;166:56-69

PMID: 29042140

Abstract

Anti-VEGF-directed therapies have been a milestone for treating retinal vascular diseases. Depletion of monocyte lineage cells suppresses pathological neovascularization in the oxygen-induced retinopathy mouse model. However, the question whether myeloid-derived VEGF-A expression is responsible for the pathogenesis in oxygen-induced retinopathy remained unknown. We analyzed LysMCre-driven myeloid cell-specific VEGF-A knockout mice as well as mice with complete depletion of circulating macrophages through clodronate-liposome treatment in the oxygen-induced retinopathy model by immunohistochemistry, qPCR, and flow cytometry. Furthermore, we analyzed VEGF-A mRNA expression in MIO-M1 cells alone and in co-culture with BV-2 cells in vitro. The myeloid cell-specific VEGF-A knockout did not change relative retinal VEGF-A mRNA levels, the relative avascular area or macrophage/granulocyte numbers in oxygen-induced retinopathy and under normoxic conditions. We observed an insignificantly attenuated pathology in systemically clodronate-liposome treated knockouts but evident VEGF-A expression in activated Müller cells on immunohistochemically stained sections. MIO-M1 cells had significantly higher expression levels of VEGF-A in co-culture with BV-2 cells compared to cultivating MIO-M1 cells alone. Our data show that myeloid-derived cells contribute to pathological neovascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy through activation of VEGF-A expression in Müller cells.

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