RIP Kinases in Liver Cell Death, Inflammation and Cancer

Kondylis V, Pasparakis M

Trends Mol Med 2019 Jan;25(1):47-63

PMID: 30455045

Abstract

Cell death is intrinsically linked to inflammatory liver disease and cancer development. Recent genetic studies have suggested that receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK)1 is implicated in liver disease pathogenesis by regulating caspase-dependent hepatocyte apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or other stimuli. In contrast, the contribution of caspase-independent RIPK3/mixed lineage kinase like (MLKL)-mediated hepatocyte necroptosis remains debatable. Hepatocyte apoptosis depends on the balance between RIPK1 prosurvival scaffolding functions and its kinase-activity-mediated proapoptotic function. Several regulatory steps promote the prosurvival role of RIPK1, including phosphorylation and ubiquitination of RIPK1 itself and other molecules involved in RIPK1 signaling. Pharmacological inhibition of liver damage by targeting RIPK1 signaling emerges as a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent chronic liver inflammation and hepatocarcinogenesis.

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