Nucleotide excision repair (NER) eliminates various structurally unrelated DNA lesions by a multiwise ‚cut and patch‘-type reaction. The global genome NER (GG-NER) subpathway prevents mutagenesis by probing the genome for helix-distorting lesions, whereas transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER) removes transcription-blocking lesions to permit unperturbed gene expression, thereby preventing cell death. Consequently, defects in GG-NER result in cancer predisposition, whereas defects in TC-NER cause a variety of diseases ranging from ultraviolet radiation-sensitive syndrome to severe premature ageing conditions such as Cockayne syndrome. Recent studies have uncovered new aspects of DNA-damage detection by NER, how NER is regulated by extensive post-translational modifications, and the dynamic chromatin interactions that control its efficiency. Based on these findings, a mechanistic model is proposed that explains the complex genotype-phenotype correlations of transcription-coupled repair disorders.